To sum things up...

Four rare and spectacular Hawk-Eagle species are now doomed to a very rapid extinction in the Indonesian Archipelago due to irreversible habitat destruction. More than 95% of the original rainforest is lost on Java Island, where 110,000,000 people squeeze on 90,000 square kilometers.


No more than 50 to 60 pairs of the forest-dwelling, endemic Javan Crested Eagle still live on two extremely limited areas (Meru Kediri Nature Reserve and Sukabumi Hills).

(View maps.)

None of their last offspring has the smallest chance to survive and breed out of the parents' territory.  



Status of three related, also red-listed Hawk-Eagle species (Blyth's, Rufous-Bellied, Wallace's) is also extremely critical.  


A very poor conservation framework in the Republic of Indonesia  

Conservation steps taken in Indonesia to-date:

  1. Capture prohibition (Forestry Dept, 1982): proved to be a total failure. A national emblem, the Javan Eagle still stands among the most sought after species!  

  2. Nature Reserves network (Dept of Forestry and International NGO’s), mostly living on maps. Coffee plantations rapidly replace mountain forest!  

  3. Population assessment studies (International NGO’s), often very costly, limited accuracy and so far totally ineffective in regard of active preservation of wild populations.

  4. Captive breeding. The only true and productive effort to actually save young Raptors and rear them was initiated in 1999 by the Biak Falconry and Raptors Conservation Center.